Государственный гимн Российской Федерации
Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii
("State Anthem of the Russian Federation")
Russia on the globe with unrecognized territories in light green.[a]
and largest city
and national language
|Recognised national languages||See Languages of Russia|
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Federal semi-presidential constitutional republic|
|16 January 1547|
|2 November 1721|
|15 March 1917|
|12 December 1991|
|12 December 1993|
|18 March 2014|
|4 July 2020|
|17,098,246 km2 (6,601,670 sq mi)[b] (1st)|
• Water (%)
|13 (including swamps)|
• 2021 estimate
|8.4/km2 (21.8/sq mi) (181st)|
|GDP (PPP)||2021 estimate|
|$4,328 trillion (6th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2021 estimate|
|$1.710 trillion (11th)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2018)|| 37.5|
medium · 98th
|HDI (2019)|| 0.824|
very high · 52nd
|Currency||Russian ruble (₽) (RUB)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 to +12|
|ISO 3166 code||RU|
Russia (Russian: Россия, Rossiya, Russian pronunciation: [rɐˈsʲijə]), or the Russian Federation,[c] is a country spanning Eastern Europe and North Asia. It is the largest country in the world, covering over 17 million square kilometres (6.6×106 sq mi), and encompassing more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area. Russia extends across eleven time zones, and has borders with sixteen sovereign nations. It has a population of 146.2 million; and is the most populous country in Europe, and the ninth-most populous country in the world. Moscow, the capital, is the largest city in Europe, while Saint Petersburg is the nation's second-largest city and cultural centre. Russians are the largest Slavic and European nation; they speak Russian, the most spoken Slavic language, and the most spoken native language in Europe.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognisable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. The medieval state of Rus' arose in the 9th century. In 988, it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated until it was finally reunified by the Grand Duchy of Moscow in the 15th century. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third-largest empire in history. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian SFSR became the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first human in space. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation. In the aftermath of the constitutional crisis of 1993, a new constitution was adopted, and Russia has since been governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Vladimir Putin has dominated Russia's political system since 2000, and his government has been accused of authoritarianism, numerous human rights abuses, and corruption.
Russia is a great power, and is considered a potential superpower.[d] It is ranked very high in the Human Development Index, with a universal healthcare system, and a free university education. Russia's economy is the world's eleventh-largest by nominal GDP and the sixth-largest by PPP. It is a recognised nuclear-weapons state, possessing the world's largest stockpile of nuclear weapons, with the world's second-most powerful military, and the fourth-highest military expenditure. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the world's largest, and it is one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G20, the SCO, the Council of Europe, the APEC, the OSCE, the IIB and the WTO, as well as the leading member of the CIS, the CSTO, and the EAEU. Russia is also home to the ninth-greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
The name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated primarily by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants "Русская земля" (Russkaya zemlya), which can be translated as "Russian land" or "land of Rus." In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography. The name Rus' itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, and Swedish merchants and warriors, who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centred on Novgorod that later became Kievan Rus'.
An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия (Rossiya), comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία (Rosía pronounced [roˈsia]) in Modern Greek.
The standard way to refer to the citizens of Russia is "Russians" in English. There are two words in Russian which are commonly translated into English as "Russians"—one is "русские" (russkiye), which most often refers to ethnic Russians—and the other is "россияне" (rossiyane), which refers to the citizens of Russia, regardless of ethnicity.