Lupinus

Lupinus, commonly known as lupin or lupine,[note 1] is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family Fabaceae. The genus includes over 199 species, with centers of diversity in North and South America.[1] Smaller centers occur in North Africa and the Mediterranean.[1][2] They are widely cultivated, both as a food source and as ornamental plants, although in New Zealand's South Island, introduced lupins are viewed as a severe environmental threat.[3]

Lupinus
Lupinus field, St. John's, Newfoundland.jpg
Sundial lupine (Lupinus perennis)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Papilionoideae
Tribe: Genisteae
Subtribe: Lupininae
Genus: Lupinus
L.
Type species
Lupinus albus
L.
Subgenera
  • Lupinus
  • Platycarpos (S.Wats) Kurl.

The species are mostly herbaceous perennial plants 0.3–1.5 m (0.98–4.92 ft) tall, but some are annual plants and a few are shrubs up to 3 m (9.8 ft) tall. An exception is the chamis de monte (Lupinus jaimehintoniana) of Oaxaca in Mexico, which is a tree up to 8 m (26 ft) tall.[4] Lupins have soft green to grey-green leaves which may be coated in silvery hairs, often densely so. The leaf blades are usually palmately divided into five to 28 leaflets, or reduced to a single leaflet in a few species of the southeastern United States and eastern South America.[5] The flowers are produced in dense or open whorls on an erect spike, each flower 1–2 cm long. The pea-like flowers have an upper standard, or banner, two lateral wings, and two lower petals fused into a keel. The flower shape has inspired common names such as bluebonnets and quaker bonnets. The fruit is a pod containing several seeds.