List of sovereign states

A long row of flags
Flags of the United Nations member and non-member observer states in front of the Palace of Nations in Geneva, Switzerland

The following is a list providing an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.

The 206 listed states can be divided into three categories based on membership within the United Nations System: 193 member states,[1] 2 observer states and 11 other states. The sovereignty dispute column indicates states having undisputed sovereignty (188 states), states having disputed sovereignty (16 states, of which there are 6 member states, 1 observer state and 9 other states), and states having a special status (2 states).

Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below. The list is intended to include entities that have been recognised as having de facto status as sovereign states, and inclusion should not be seen as an endorsement of any specific claim to statehood in legal terms.

List of states[edit]

Common and formal namesMembership within the UN System[a]Sovereignty dispute[b]Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty[d]
A AAAA AAAA AAA
ZZZUN member states and observer statesA AAAZZZ
ZZZAbkhazia → See Abkhazia listing
 Afghanistan – Islamic Republic of AfghanistanA UN member stateA None
 Albania – Republic of AlbaniaA UN member stateA None
 Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of AlgeriaA UN member stateA None
 Andorra – Principality of AndorraA UN member stateA NoneAndorra is a co-principality in which the office of head of state is jointly held ex officio by the French president and the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Urgell,[2] who himself is appointed with approval from the Holy See.
 Angola – Republic of AngolaA UN member stateA None
 Antigua and BarbudaA UN member stateA NoneAntigua and Barbuda is a Commonwealth realm[e] with one autonomous region, Barbuda.[f]
 Argentina – Argentine Republic[g]A UN member stateA NoneArgentina is a federation of 23 provinces and one autonomous city.[h]
 Armenia – Republic of ArmeniaA UN member stateNot recognised by Pakistan.Armenia is not recognised by Pakistan due to the dispute over Artsakh.[5][6][7]
ZZZArtsakh → See Artsakh listing
 Australia – Commonwealth of AustraliaA UN member stateA NoneAustralia is a Commonwealth realm[e] and a federation of both states and territories. There are six states, three internal territories, six external territories and one claimed Antarctic external territory. The external territories of Australia are:
 Austria – Republic of AustriaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the European Union.[c] Austria is a federation of nine states.
 Azerbaijan – Republic of AzerbaijanA UN member stateA NoneAzerbaijan contains one autonomous region, Nakhchivan [f] The de facto state of Artsakh has been established in the southwest of Azerbaijan.
 Bahamas, The – Commonwealth of The Bahamas[9]A UN member stateA NoneThe Bahamas is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Bahrain – Kingdom of BahrainA UN member stateA None
 Bangladesh – People's Republic of BangladeshA UN member stateA None
 BarbadosA UN member stateA NoneBarbados is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Belarus – Republic of BelarusA UN member stateA None
 Belgium – Kingdom of BelgiumA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c] Belgium is a federation of three linguistic communities and three regions.
 BelizeA UN member stateA NoneBelize is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Benin – Republic of BeninA UN member stateA None
 Bhutan – Kingdom of BhutanA UN member stateA None
 Bolivia – Plurinational State of BoliviaA UN member stateA None
 Bosnia and HerzegovinaA UN member stateA NoneBosnia and Herzegovina has two constituent entities:

and Brčko District, a self-governing administrative district.[10]

 Botswana – Republic of BotswanaA UN member stateA None
 Brazil – Federative Republic of BrazilA UN member stateA NoneBrazil is a federation of 26 states and one federal district.
 Brunei – Nation of Brunei, the Abode of PeaceA UN member stateA None
 Bulgaria – Republic of BulgariaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Burkina FasoA UN member stateA None
ZZZBurma → See Myanmar listing
 Burundi – Republic of BurundiA UN member stateA None
 Cambodia – Kingdom of CambodiaA UN member stateA None
 Cameroon – Republic of CameroonA UN member stateA None
 Canada[i]A UN member stateA NoneCanada is a Commonwealth realm[e] and a federation of 10 provinces and three territories.
 Cape Verde – Republic of Cabo Verde[j]A UN member stateA None
 Central African RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Chad – Republic of ChadA UN member stateA None
 Chile – Republic of ChileA UN member stateA None[k]
 China – People's Republic of China[l]A UN member statePartially unrecognised. B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by ArgentinaChina contains five autonomous regions, Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Tibet, and Xinjiang.[f] Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special Administrative Regions of:

China claims, but does not control Taiwan, which is governed by a rival administration (the Republic of China) that claims all of China as its territory.[m]

China is not recognised by 15 UN member states and Vatican City, which, with the exception of Bhutan, all recognise Taiwan instead.[n]

ZZZChina, Republic of → See Taiwan listing
 Colombia – Republic of ColombiaA UN member stateA None
 Comoros – Union of the ComorosA UN member stateA NoneComoros is a federation of three islands.[o]
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the[p]A UN member stateA None
 Congo, Republic of the[q]A UN member stateA None
ZZZCook Islands → See Cook Islands listing
 Costa Rica – Republic of Costa RicaA UN member stateA None
ZZZCôte d'Ivoire → See Ivory Coast listing
 Croatia – Republic of CroatiaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Cuba – Republic of CubaA UN member stateA None
 Cyprus – Republic of CyprusA UN member stateNot recognised by Turkey[13]Member of the EU.[c] The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of Northern Cyprus.

Cyprus is not recognised by Turkey due to the Cyprus dispute, with Turkey recognising Northern Cyprus.

 Czech Republic[r]A UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
ZZZDemocratic People's Republic of Korea → See Korea, North listing
ZZZDemocratic Republic of the Congo → See Congo, Democratic Republic of the listing
 Denmark – Kingdom of DenmarkA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c] The Kingdom of Denmark includes 2 self-governing territories:

The continental territory of Denmark, the Faroe Islands, and Greenland form the three constituent countries of the Kingdom.[s] The Kingdom of Denmark as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law does not apply to the Faroe Islands and Greenland.[14][15]

 Djibouti – Republic of DjiboutiA UN member stateA None
 Dominica – Commonwealth of DominicaA UN member stateA None
 Dominican RepublicA UN member stateA None
 East Timor – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste[t]A UN member stateA None
 Ecuador – Republic of EcuadorA UN member stateA None
 Egypt – Arab Republic of EgyptA UN member stateA None
 El Salvador – Republic of El SalvadorA UN member stateA None
 Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial GuineaA UN member stateA None
 Eritrea – State of EritreaA UN member stateA None
 Estonia – Republic of EstoniaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Eswatini – Kingdom of Eswatini[u]A UN member stateA None
 Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of EthiopiaA UN member stateA NoneEthiopia is a federation of nine regions and two chartered cities.
 Fiji – Republic of FijiA UN member stateA NoneFiji contains one autonomous region, Rotuma.[f][16][17]
 Finland – Republic of FinlandA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
  •  Åland is a neutral and demilitarised autonomous region of Finland.[f][v]
 France – French RepublicA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c] France contains five overseas regions/departments; French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Réunion. France also includes the overseas territories of:
 Gabon – Gabonese RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Gambia, The – Republic of The Gambia[18]A UN member stateA None
 GeorgiaA UN member stateA NoneGeorgia contains two autonomous republics, Adjara and Abkhazia.[f] In Abkhazia and South Ossetia, de facto states have been formed.
 Germany – Federal Republic of GermanyA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c] Germany is a federation of 16 states.
 Ghana – Republic of GhanaA UN member stateA None
 Greece – Hellenic RepublicA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c] Greece contains one autonomous area, Mount Athos.[19]
 GrenadaA UN member stateA NoneGrenada is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Guatemala – Republic of GuatemalaA UN member stateA None
 Guinea – Republic of Guinea[x]A UN member stateA None
 Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-BissauA UN member stateA None
 Guyana – Co-operative Republic of GuyanaA UN member stateA None
 Haiti – Republic of HaitiA UN member stateA None
ZZZHoly See → See Vatican City listing
 Honduras – Republic of HondurasA UN member stateA None
 HungaryA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Iceland[y]A UN member stateA None
 India – Republic of IndiaA UN member stateA NoneIndia is a federation of 28 states and eight union territories.
 Indonesia – Republic of IndonesiaA UN member stateA NoneIndonesia has five autonomous provinces, Aceh, Jakarta, Papua, West Papua, and Yogyakarta.[f]
 Iran – Islamic Republic of IranA UN member stateA None
 Iraq – Republic of IraqA UN member stateA NoneIraq is a federation[o][23] of 19 governorates, four of which make up the autonomous Kurdistan Region.[f]
 Ireland[z]A UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Israel – State of IsraelA UN member statePartially unrecognisedIsrael exerts strong control over the territory claimed by Palestine. Israel annexed East Jerusalem,[25] an annexation not recognised by the international community.[26] Israel maintains varying levels of control over the rest of the West Bank, and although Israel no longer has a permanent civilian or military presence in the Gaza Strip, following its unilateral disengagement, it is still considered by some to be the occupying power under international law.[27][28][29][30][31]

Israel is not recognised as a state by 28 UN members and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. The Palestine Liberation Organization, which enjoys recognition by a majority of UN member states as the sole representative of the Palestinian people, also does not recognise Israel.

 Italy – Italian RepublicA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c] Italy has 5 autonomous regions, Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.[f]
 Ivory Coast – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire[aa]A UN member stateA None
 JamaicaA UN member stateA NoneJamaica is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 JapanA UN member stateA None
 Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of JordanA UN member stateA None
 Kazakhstan – Republic of KazakhstanA UN member stateA None
 Kenya – Republic of KenyaA UN member stateA None
 Kiribati – Republic of KiribatiA UN member stateA None
 Korea, North – Democratic People's Republic of KoreaA UN member stateB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by ArgentinaNorth Korea is not recognised by three UN members, France, Japan, and South Korea, the last of which claims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.[32]
 Korea, South – Republic of KoreaA UN member stateB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by ArgentinaSouth Korea has one autonomous region, Jejudo.[f][33]

South Korea is not recognised by North Korea, which claims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.

ZZZKosovo → See Kosovo listing
 Kuwait – State of KuwaitA UN member stateA None
 Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Laos – Lao People's Democratic RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Latvia – Republic of LatviaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Lebanon – Lebanese RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Lesotho – Kingdom of LesothoA UN member stateA None
 Liberia – Republic of LiberiaA UN member stateA None
 Libya – State of LibyaA UN member stateA None
 Liechtenstein – Principality of LiechtensteinA UN member stateA None
 Lithuania – Republic of LithuaniaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of LuxembourgA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
ZZZMacedonia → See North Macedonia listing
 Madagascar – Republic of MadagascarA UN member stateA None
 Malawi – Republic of MalawiA UN member stateA None
 MalaysiaA UN member stateA NoneMalaysia is a federation of 13 states and three federal territories.
 Maldives – Republic of MaldivesA UN member stateA None
 Mali – Republic of MaliA UN member stateA None
 Malta – Republic of MaltaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall IslandsA UN member stateA NoneUnder Compact of Free Association with the United States.
 Mauritania – Islamic Republic of MauritaniaA UN member stateA None
 Mauritius – Republic of MauritiusA UN member stateA NoneMauritius has an autonomous island, Rodrigues.[f]
 Mexico – United Mexican StatesA UN member stateA NoneMexico is a federation of 31 states and one autonomous city.

The Rebel Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities have de facto autonomy.

 Micronesia – Federated States of MicronesiaA UN member stateA NoneUnder Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Federated States of Micronesia is a federation of four states.
 Moldova – Republic of MoldovaA UN member stateA NoneMoldova has the autonomous regions of Gagauzia and Transnistria autonomous territorial unit. The latter is under the de facto control of Transnistria.
 Monaco – Principality of MonacoA UN member stateA None
 MongoliaA UN member stateA None
 MontenegroA UN member stateA None
 Morocco – Kingdom of MoroccoA UN member stateA NonePart of the Moroccan-claimed Western Sahara is controlled by the partially recognised Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.
 Mozambique – Republic of MozambiqueA UN member stateA None
 Myanmar – Republic of the Union of Myanmar[ab]A UN member stateA NoneWa State is a de facto autonomous state within Myanmar.
ZZZNagorno-Karabakh → See Artsakh listing
 Namibia – Republic of NamibiaA UN member stateA None
 Nauru – Republic of NauruA UN member stateA None
   Nepal – Federal Democratic Republic of NepalA UN member stateA NoneNepal is a federation composed of 7 provinces.
 Netherlands – Kingdom of the NetherlandsA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c] The Kingdom of the Netherlands includes four areas with substantial autonomy:

The continental part of the Netherlands, Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten form the four constituent countries of the Kingdom. Three other overseas territories (Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius) are special municipalities of the continental Netherlands.[ac] The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law applies only to parts within Europe.

 New ZealandA UN member stateA NoneNew Zealand is a Commonwealth realm,[e] and has one dependent territory and one claimed Antarctic dependent territory of:

The New Zealand Government acts for the entire Realm of New Zealand in all international contexts, which has responsibilities for (but no rights of control over) two freely associated states:

The Cook Islands and Niue have diplomatic relations with 49 and 18 UN members respectively.[34][35][36] They have full treaty-making capacity in the UN,[37] and are members of some UN specialized agencies.

 Nicaragua – Republic of NicaraguaA UN member stateA NoneNicaragua contains two autonomous regions, Atlántico Sur and Atlántico Norte.[f]
 Niger – Republic of NigerA UN member stateA None
 Nigeria – Federal Republic of NigeriaA UN member stateA NoneNigeria is a federation of 36 states and one federal territory.
ZZZNiue → See Niue listing
ZZZNorth Korea → See Korea, North listing
 North Macedonia – Republic of North Macedonia[ad]A UN member stateA None
ZZZNorthern Cyprus → See Northern Cyprus listing
 Norway – Kingdom of NorwayA UN member stateA NoneNorway has two unincorporated areas in Europe:
  •  Svalbard is an integral part of Norway, but has a special status due to the Svalbard Treaty.
  •  Jan Mayen is an uninhabited island that is an integral part of Norway, although unincorporated.

Norway has one dependent territory and two claimed Antarctic dependent territories in the Southern Hemisphere:

 Oman – Sultanate of OmanA UN member stateA None
 Pakistan – Islamic Republic of PakistanA UN member stateA NonePakistan is a federation of four provinces and one capital territory. Pakistan exercises control over certain portions of Kashmir, but has not officially annexed any of it,[38][39] instead regarding it as a disputed territory.[40][41] The portions that it controls are divided into two territories, administered separately from Pakistan proper:

Azad Kashmir describes itself as a "self-governing state under Pakistani control", while Gilgit-Baltistan is described in its governance order as a group of "areas" with self-government.[42][43][44] These territories are not usually regarded as sovereign, as they do not fulfil the criteria set out by the declarative theory of statehood (for example, their current laws do not allow them to engage independently in relations with other states). Several state functions of these territories (such as foreign affairs and defence) are performed by Pakistan.[43][45][46]

 Palau – Republic of PalauA UN member stateA NoneUnder Compact of Free Association with the United States.
 Palestine – State of PalestineA UN observer state; member of 2 UN specialized agenciesPartially unrecognised. B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by ArgentinaThe State of Palestine, declared in 1988, is not recognised as a state by Israel and has received diplomatic recognition from 138 states.[47] The proclaimed state has no agreed territorial borders, or effective control over much of the territory that it proclaimed.[48] The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords that exercises limited autonomous jurisdiction within the Palestinian territories. In foreign relations, Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization.[49] The State of Palestine is a member state of UNESCO,[50] UNIDO and other international organizations.[51]
 Panama – Republic of PanamaA UN member stateA None
 Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New GuineaA UN member stateA NonePapua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm[e] with one autonomous region, Bougainville.[f]
 Paraguay – Republic of ParaguayA UN member stateA None
 Peru – Republic of PeruA UN member stateA None
 Philippines – Republic of the PhilippinesA UN member stateA NoneThe Philippines contains one autonomous region, Bangsamoro.[f]
 Poland – Republic of PolandA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Portugal – Portuguese RepublicA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c] Portugal contains two autonomous regions, the Azores and Madeira.[f]
ZZZPridnestrovie → See Transnistria listing
 Qatar – State of QatarA UN member stateA None
ZZZRepublic of Korea → See Korea, South listing
ZZZRepublic of the Congo → See Congo, Republic of the listing
 RomaniaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Russia – Russian FederationA UN member stateA NoneRussia is a federation of 85 federal subjects (republics, oblasts, krais, autonomous okrugs, federal cities, and an autonomous oblast). Several of the federal subjects are ethnic republics.[f]
 Rwanda – Republic of RwandaA UN member stateA None
ZZZSahrawi Arab Democratic Republic → See Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic listing
 Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and NevisA UN member stateA NoneSaint Kitts and Nevis is a Commonwealth realm[e] and is a federation[o] of two islands, St. Kitts and Nevis.
 Saint LuciaA UN member stateA NoneSaint Lucia is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesA UN member stateA NoneSaint Vincent and the Grenadines is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Samoa – Independent State of SamoaA UN member stateA None
 San Marino – Republic of San MarinoA UN member stateA None
 São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and PríncipeA UN member stateA NoneSão Tomé and Príncipe contains one autonomous province, Príncipe.[f]
 Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaA UN member stateA None
 Senegal – Republic of SenegalA UN member stateA None
 Serbia – Republic of SerbiaA UN member stateA NoneSerbia contains two autonomous regions, Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija.[f] The latter is under the de facto control of Kosovo.
 Seychelles – Republic of SeychellesA UN member stateA None
 Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra LeoneA UN member stateA None
 Singapore – Republic of SingaporeA UN member stateA None
 Slovakia – Slovak RepublicA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Slovenia – Republic of SloveniaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Solomon IslandsA UN member stateA NoneSolomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Somalia – Federal Republic of SomaliaA UN member stateA NoneSomalia is a federation of six states. Two, Puntland and Galmudug, have self-declared autonomy, while one, Somaliland, is de facto independent.
ZZZSomaliland → See Somaliland listing
 South Africa – Republic of South AfricaA UN member stateA None
ZZZSouth Korea → See Korea, South listing
ZZZSouth Ossetia → See South Ossetia listing
 South Sudan – Republic of South SudanA UN member stateA NoneSouth Sudan is a federation of 10 states and three administrative areas.
  • The Abyei Area is a zone with "special administrative status" established by the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005. It is de jure a condominium of South Sudan and Sudan, but de facto administered by two competing administrations and the United Nations.[52][53]
 Spain – Kingdom of SpainA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c] Spain is divided into 17 autonomous communities and two special autonomous cities.[f][ae]
 Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka[af]A UN member stateA None
 Sudan – Republic of the SudanA UN member stateA NoneSudan is a federation of 18 states.
  • The Abyei Area is a zone with "special administrative status" established by the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005. It is de jure a condominium of South Sudan and Sudan, but de facto administered by two competing administrations and the United Nations.[52][53]
ZZZSudan, South → See South Sudan listing
 Suriname – Republic of SurinameA UN member stateA None
ZZZSwaziland → See Eswatini listing
 Sweden – Kingdom of SwedenA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
  Switzerland – Swiss ConfederationA UN member stateA NoneSwitzerland is a federation of 26 cantons.
 Syria – Syrian Arab RepublicA UN member stateA NoneThe Syrian National Coalition, which is recognised as the legitimate representative of the Syrian people by 20 UN members, has established an interim government to rule rebel controlled territory during the Syrian civil war.

Syria has one self-declared autonomous region: Rojava.

ZZZTaiwan (Republic of China) → See Taiwan listing
 Tajikistan – Republic of TajikistanA UN member stateA NoneTajikistan contains one autonomous region, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province.[f]
 Tanzania – United Republic of TanzaniaA UN member stateA NoneTanzania contains one autonomous region, Zanzibar.[f]
 Thailand – Kingdom of ThailandA UN member stateA None
ZZZThe Bahamas → See Bahamas, The listing
ZZZThe Gambia → See Gambia, The listing
ZZZTimor-Leste → See East Timor listing
 Togo – Togolese RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Tonga – Kingdom of TongaA UN member stateA None
ZZZTransnistria → See Transnistria listing
 Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and TobagoA UN member stateA NoneTrinidad and Tobago contains one autonomous region, Tobago.[f]
 Tunisia – Republic of TunisiaA UN member stateA None
 Turkey – Republic of TurkeyA UN member stateA None
 TurkmenistanA UN member stateA None
 TuvaluA UN member stateA NoneTuvalu is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Uganda – Republic of UgandaA UN member stateA None
 UkraineA UN member stateA NoneUkraine contains one autonomous region, the Autonomous Republic of Crimea,[f] which is under the de facto control of Russia, along with neighbouring Sevastopol.
 United Arab EmiratesA UN member stateA NoneThe United Arab Emirates is a federation of seven emirates.
 United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandA UN member stateA NoneThe United Kingdom is a Commonwealth realm[e] consisting of four constituent countries; England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom has the following 13 overseas territories and one claimed Antarctic dependent territory:

The British monarch also has direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:

 United States – United States of AmericaA UN member stateA NoneThe United States is a federation of 50 states, one federal district, and one incorporated territory. Additionally, the Federal government of the United States has sovereignty over 13 unincorporated territories. Of these territories, the following five are inhabited possessions:

It also has sovereignty over several uninhabited territories:

It also disputes sovereignty over the following two territories:

Three sovereign states have become associated states of the United States under the Compact of Free Association:

 Uruguay – Oriental Republic of UruguayA UN member stateA None
 Uzbekistan – Republic of UzbekistanA UN member stateA NoneUzbekistan contains one autonomous region, Karakalpakstan.[f]
 Vanuatu – Republic of VanuatuA UN member stateA None
  Vatican City – Vatican City StateA UN observer state under the designation of "Holy See"; member of three UN specialized agencies and the IAEAA NoneAdministered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity with diplomatic relations to 183 states. This figure consists of 180 UN member states, the Cook Islands, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and the State of Palestine.[54] In addition, the European Union and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta maintain diplomatic relations with the Holy See. The Holy See is a member of the IAEA, ITU, UPU, and WIPO and a permanent observer of the UN (in the category of "Non-member State")[49] and multiple other UN System organizations. The Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, who is the Bishop of the Diocese of Rome and ex officio sovereign of Vatican City.
 Venezuela – Bolivarian Republic of VenezuelaA UN member stateA NoneVenezuela is a federation of 23 states, one capital district, and federal dependencies.
 Vietnam – Socialist Republic of VietnamA UN member stateA None
 Yemen – Republic of YemenA UN member stateA None
 Zambia – Republic of ZambiaA UN member stateA None
 Zimbabwe – Republic of ZimbabweA UN member stateA None
ZZZUN member states and observer statesA ZZZZZZ
ZZZABB
ZZZ↓ Other states ↓D AAAZZZ
 Abkhazia – Republic of AbkhaziaD No membershipB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by ArgentinaRecognised by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Syria, Venezuela, Artsakh, South Ossetia and Transnistria.[55] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
 Artsakh – Republic of Artsakh[ag]D No membershipB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by ArgentinaA de facto independent state,[56][57][58] recognised only by Abkhazia,[59] South Ossetia[59] and Transnistria.[59][60] Claimed in whole by Azerbaijan.[61]
 Cook IslandsD Member of eight UN specialized agenciesA None
(See political status)
A state in free association with New Zealand, the Cook Islands maintains diplomatic relations with 52 states. The Cook Islands is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[37] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
 Kosovo – Republic of KosovoD Member of two UN specialized agenciesB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by ArgentinaPursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, Kosovo was placed under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo in 1999.[62] Kosovo declared independence in 2008, and it has received diplomatic recognition from 113 UN member states and the Republic of China, while 18 states have recognized Kosovo only to later withdraw their recognition.[63] Serbia continues to maintain its sovereignty claim over Kosovo. Other UN member states and non UN member states continue to recognise Serbian sovereignty or have taken no position on the question. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. The Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.
 NiueD Member of five UN specialized agenciesA None
(See political status)
A state in free association with New Zealand, Niue maintains diplomatic relations with 20 states. Niue is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[37] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
 Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern CyprusD No membershipB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by ArgentinaRecognised only by Turkey. Under the name "Turkish Cypriot State", it is an observer state of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organization. Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus.[64]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicD No membershipB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by ArgentinaRecognised at some stage by 84 UN member states, 45 of which have since withdrawn or frozen their recognition. It is a founding member of the African Union and the Asian–African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian–African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of Western Sahara to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.
 Somaliland – Republic of SomalilandD No membershipB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by ArgentinaA de facto independent state,[56][65][66][67][68] not diplomatically recognised by any other state, claimed in whole by the Federal Republic of Somalia.[69]
 South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia–the State of AlaniaD No membershipB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by ArgentinaA de facto independent state,[70] recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Syria, Venezuela, Abkhazia, Artsakh and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.[71]
 Taiwan – Republic of China[l]D Former UN member and former permanent UN Security Council member (as Republic of China, 1945–1971)
Observer in one UN specialized agency under the name "Chinese Taipei"
B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by ArgentinaA state competing (nominally) for recognition with the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the government of China since 1949. The Republic of China (ROC) controls the island of Taiwan and associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas and parts of the Spratly Islands, and has not renounced claims over its annexed territories on the mainland.[72] The ROC is recognised by 14 UN member states and the Holy See as of 20 September 2019, none of which recognise the PRC. Additionally, one UN member (Bhutan) has refrained from recognising either the ROC or the PRC.

The territory of the ROC is claimed in whole by the PRC.[m] The ROC participates in international organizations under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly "Chinese Taipei" and in the WTO it has full membership. The ROC was a founding member of the UN and enjoyed membership from 1945 to 1971, with veto power in the UN Security Council. See China and the United Nations.

 Transnistria – Pridnestrovian Moldavian RepublicD No membershipB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by ArgentinaA de facto independent state,[56] recognised only by Abkhazia, Artsakh and South Ossetia.[55] Claimed in whole by Moldova as the Transnistria autonomous territorial unit.[73]
ZZZ↑ Other states ↑D ZZZZZZ
ZZZZZZZZZZZZ
Legend "Membership within the UN System" column
  UN Member states
  UN Observer states
  Member of a UN Specialized Agency
  Observer in a UN Specialized Agency
  No membership in the UN System
Legend "Sovereignty dispute" column
  Undisputed sovereignty
  Sovereignty disputed