Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية (Arabic)
Al-Mamlakah al-’Urdunniyyah Al-Hāshimiyyah
Motto: "God, Country, King"[1]
"الله، الوطن، الملك"
Al-Lāh, Al-Waṭan, Al-Malik
Anthem: The Royal Anthem of Jordan
السلام الملكي الأردني
As-Salām Al-Malakī Al-ʾUrdunī

Location of Jordan
and largest city
31°57′N 35°56′E / 31.950°N 35.933°E / 31.950; 35.933
Official languagesArabic[2]
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary
constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Abdullah II
Bisher Khasawneh
House of Representatives
• Emirate
11 April 1921
25 May 1946
11 January 1952
• Total
89,342 km2 (34,495 sq mi) (110th)
• Water (%)
• 2020 estimate
10,658,123[3] (87th)
• 2015 census
• Density
114/km2 (295.3/sq mi) (70th)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
$102.158 billion[5] (84th)
• Per capita
$10,007[5] (110th)
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
$42.609 billion[5] (89th)
• Per capita
$4,174[5] (102th)
Gini (2011)35.4[6]
medium · 79th
HDI (2019)Increase 0.729[7]
high · 102nd
CurrencyJordanian dinar (JOD)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+962
ISO 3166 codeJO

Jordan (Arabic: الأردن‎; tr. Al-ʾUrdunn [al.ʔur.dunː]), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (Arabic: المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية‎; tr. Al-Mamlakah al-’Urdunniyyah Al-Hāshimiyyah), is an Arab country in the Levant region of Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River. Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Syria, Israel and Palestine (West Bank). The Dead Sea is located along its western borders and the country has a 26-kilometre (16 mi) coastline on the Red Sea in its extreme south-west.[8] Jordan is situated at the crossroads of Asia, Africa and Europe.[9] The capital, Amman, is Jordan's most populous city as well as the country's economic, political and cultural centre.[10]

What is now Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period. Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age: Ammon, Moab and Edom. Later rulers include the Nabataean Kingdom, the Persian Empire, the Roman Empire, the Rashidun, Umayyad, and Abbasid Caliphates, and the Ottoman Empire. After the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in 1916 during World War I, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned by Britain and France. The Emirate of Transjordan was established in 1921 by the Hashemite, then Emir, Abdullah I, and the emirate became a British protectorate. In 1946, Jordan became an independent state officially known as the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan, but was renamed in 1949 to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan after the country captured the West Bank during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and annexed it until it was lost to Israel in 1967. Jordan renounced its claim to the territory in 1988, and became the second Arab state to sign a peace treaty with Israel in 1994.[11] Jordan is a founding member of the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Co-operation. The sovereign state is a constitutional monarchy, but the king holds wide executive and legislative powers.

Jordan is a semi-arid country with an area of 89,342 km2 (34,495 sq mi) and a population numbering 10 million, making it the 11th-most populous Arab country. Sunni Islam, practised by around 95% of the population, is the dominant religion and coexists with an indigenous Christian minority. Jordan has been repeatedly referred to as an "oasis of stability" in a turbulent region. It has been mostly unscathed by the violence that swept the region following the Arab Spring in 2010.[12] From as early as 1948, Jordan has accepted refugees from multiple neighbouring countries in conflict. An estimated 2.1 million Palestinian and 1.4 million Syrian refugees are present in Jordan as of a 2015 census.[4] The kingdom is also a refuge to thousands of Iraqi Christians fleeing persecution by ISIL.[13] While Jordan continues to accept refugees, the recent large influx from Syria placed substantial strain on national resources and infrastructure.[14]

Jordan is classified as a country of "high human development" with an "upper middle income" economy. The Jordanian economy, one of the smallest economies in the region, is attractive to foreign investors based upon a skilled workforce.[15] The country is a major tourist destination, also attracting medical tourism due to its well developed health sector.[16] Nonetheless, a lack of natural resources, large flow of refugees and regional turmoil have hampered economic growth.[17]


Jordan takes its name from the Jordan River which forms much of the country's northwestern border.[18] While several theories for the origin of the river's name have been proposed, it is most plausible that it derives from the Semitic word Yarad, meaning "the descender", reflecting the river's declivity.[19] Much of the area that makes up modern Jordan was historically called Transjordan, meaning "across the Jordan", used to denote the lands east of the river.[19] The Old Testament refers to the area as "the other side of the Jordan".[19] Early Arab chronicles referred to the river as Al-Urdunn, corresponding to the Semitic Yarden.[20] Jund Al-Urdunn was a military district around the river in the early Islamic era.[20] Later, during the Crusades in the beginning of the second millennium, a lordship was established in the area under the name of Oultrejordain.[21]